The ancient town of Ropar in the state of Punjab was established somewhere around 11th century AD and was named after the son of the King who ruled the region. The town overlays the Shivalik ranges of the Himalayas and is located at the banks of the River Sutlej. The town is a shadily populated spot famous for being as one of the major excavation sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. Ropar is the first Indus valley excavation site in independent India. The excavations from Ropar have yielded a detailed insight on the Indus valley civilization and the Harappa Culture. On further study of the excavations, the archeologists have deciphered a change of culture with some missing elements. A total of six recognizable cultural changes had taken place.
1. The First Period
It was denoted with the excavations like steatite Seal and the impressions on burnt clay. Copper tools were also excavated along with terracotta beads and bangles. The houses were made of pebbles from the river and cut limestone slabs. The foundations were laid with sun baked bricks and plastered with sticky clay.
2. The Second Period
The second period denotes the use of painted greyware, glass, bone arrowheads, ivory and more advanced copper tools. The use of Mauryan Brahmi script was also evidenced by some of the excavations. Many of the coins belonging to the Sunga and Kushana era were also found here.
3. The Third Period
While not many excavations belonging to this era were found here, the elaborate houses made with mud bricks and stone were found. Early coins were also excavated here.
4. The Fourth Period
The period marks the excavation of coins from the Kushana, Sunga and Gupta period were found. Many terracotta figures were also found. A few silver utensils from the Greek civilizations were also found.
5. The Fifth Period
The 5th period started during the early 6th century AD, and the special features of this were the red painted ware and several coins belonging to the Toramana and Mihirakula were excavated from this period.
Not many evidences were excavated from the 6th period as it began in the 13th century after the decline of the Harappa culture and the arrival of a new civilization. The excavations have been moved to an archeology museum located in the city and a guided visit to the museum is a must.
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